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Ripples on the cell membrane at the beginning of an individual's life

Ripples on the cell membrane at the beginning of an individual's life 

                            When a life is born, ripples appear at the cellular level. That's not a cartoonist's setting, but the latest scientific discovery.

After the sperm and egg are combined, billions of proteins ripple on the outer membrane of the fertilized egg, flashing a dazzling swirling pattern. In addition to beautiful viewing angle effects, this process is also one of the basic steps to achieve new cell division.

Eggs are huge cells, and these proteins must work together to locate the center of the cell before the cell knows where to divide and sag, said Nikta Fakhri, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Protein ripples, so there is no cell division. 

Ripples on the cell membrane at the beginning of an individual's life

Fakhri and colleagues studied the ripple pattern-how it spreads on the cell membranes of Starfish eggs.

In addition to grasping the biological characteristics of starfish oocytes, researchers also want to understand similar fluctuations in other systems-what physicists call topological defects.

As they explained in their new paper, this turbulent-like behavior can be seen in both physical and living matter, and its scale is between the universe and infinitesimal: large, then the vortex in the planet's atmosphere; small Can reach the bioelectrical signal between cells.

However, despite the large number of similar details, theoretically we still don't know whether they can be properly classified mathematically.

The author explains that While we have made great cognitive advances in topological defects and their functions, it is unclear whether the statistical laws of topology in classical and quantum systems apply to living things.

In the starfish experiment, the team introduced a hormone to mimic the process of oocyte fertilization, triggering a signal protein ripple called Rho-GTP in the process, which spread for several minutes at a time on the membrane. With the help of a fluorescent dye attached to Rho-GTP, we can directly image with a microscope.

By adjusting the hormone concentration, researchers were able to observe various vortices emanating from the entire surface medium of the egg.

We created kaleidoscopes with different patterns and observed their dynamics. We know very little about the dynamics of surface waves on fertilized eggs. We have only recently analyzed and modeled these waves and found that in all other systems It also shows the same pattern. This is a very common pattern of volatility. 

After filming and modeling, the researchers found that the turbulence and nematic phases on the membranes of these starfish's eggs were similar to the kinetic processes in the quantum system of Bose-Einstein condensates.

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