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Nobel Prize: Leading and Enlightenment

Nobel Prize: Leading and Enlightenment

The Nobel Prize for Science (hereinafter referred to as the Nobel Prize) has passed for 119 years since it was first awarded in 1901. Today, the Nobel Prize has become the most well-known award in the global scientific community, and scientists from all countries regard it as the highest honor.

In fact, for the entire scientific career, the value of the Nobel Prize is far more than just an honor. The annual Nobel Prize, while awarded to outstanding scientists who have made outstanding contributions in certain fields, is also a reward for every citizen on the planet, affirming that mankind has taken another step forward in the path of exploring truth and civilization, and Inspire more people to contribute to this, promote the continuous development of the world's scientific undertakings, and promote human progress.

Promote basic research

If all countries take a negative attitude towards basic research, humanity will suffer ... The effort to engage in basic research is too important for humanity!

In 1991, at the conference to commemorate the 90th anniversary of the Nobel Prize award, in response to the question How to prove that it is reasonable to engage in basic research? In response to this.

Looking at the content commended by the Nobel Prize for more than a century, although there are some major technological inventions, most of them are still basic research. It can be said that the Nobel Prize represents the highest level of basic scientific research, and also indicates the development direction of contemporary scientific research for scientists.

More importantly, these basic discoveries that won the Nobel Prize can often drive the development of related disciplines and fields to a deeper and broader level, catalyze more new discoveries and new breakthroughs, and promote the wheel of progress in basic scientific research. Roll forward.

A classic example is the technological leap brought about by the development of quantum mechanics. In the 1930s, the creation of quantum mechanics entered the Nobel Prize family, which fundamentally changed people's view of the microscopic world. In fact, the creation of quantum mechanics also triggered a series of subsequent scientific discoveries and technological inventions: from semiconductor transistors to integrated circuits, from atomic and molecular structures to condensed physics ... It can be said that many new technologies and new inventions in the 20th century are It is premised on the development of quantum mechanics.

Thanks to the Nobel Prize's favor for basic research, countries gradually recognized the foundational role of innovative basic research for the improvement of national scientific and technological strength and the development of autonomous high-tech industries, and began to increase their support for basic research in order to promote Multiple original research results have emerged, forming a virtuous circle.

For example, the breakthrough work of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine-"Discovering the Contribution of Negative Immunomodulatory Therapy for Cancer" is precisely the basic discovery established in the laboratory in the 1990s. Although people did not expect that this work would have such a major impact on the clinical treatment of tumors, nor did they expect it to create a tens of billions of dollars in the tumor therapeutic antibody industry, but thanks to the US and Japanese governments and the scientific community Only with the recognition and support of the importance of basic research can this original contribution finally meet the world.

Promote the application of results

For everyone, X-rays are familiar things. But few people know that this technology that benefits countless patients now comes from the Nobel Prize winning results.

In 1895, the German physicist Roentgen discovered a new type of ray with strong penetrating power during the study of cathode rays. Roentgen called it "X-ray". In 1901, Roentgen won the first Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering X-rays.

As soon as X-rays were discovered, they were widely used, not only as a weapon to see through the human body and to inspect injuries; in the industrial field, X-ray diffraction has also become important in studying crystal structure, morphology and various defects means. In addition, this discovery also set off a wave of physics research, after which the research findings on radioactivity won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.

It is not difficult to see that while promoting the development of basic scientific research to a deeper level, those technological inventions that won the Nobel Prize have directly promoted the transfer, transformation, and application of research results, and actually benefited human society.

The list goes on. Gao Kun, the 2009 Nobel Prize winner in physics, proposed the basic principles of optical fiber application in communications as early as 1966. He believed that as long as the problems of glass purity and composition were solved, optical fibers could be made from glass. The vision half a century ago has become a reality. Nowadays, the optical fiber made of quartz glass is more and more widely used, and it has set off a revolution in optical fiber communication around the world and achieved leapfrog development in the field of information technology.

It should be noted that just as Einstein wrote the formula for creating lasers in 1917, but it was not until the first laser came out in 1960, in many cases, the practical application of Nobel Prize results may lag far behind the original Discovery. As the 2018 Nobel Prize winner Donna Strickland said: "We must give scientists funds and time to engage in long-term basic scientific research based on curiosity."

Create interdisciplinary

For 119 years, interdisciplinarity has always occupied a large proportion of the Nobel Prize winning projects, and the award committee seems to be more inclined to choose research results in the cross-disciplinary category.

A set of data provides evidence for this: 41.63% of the 466 scientists who won the Nobel Prize in Science in the 20th century have an interdisciplinary background, especially in the last 25 years of the 20th century, the interdisciplinary background winners accounted for 49.07% of the total number of winners .

One of the most famous examples of interdisciplinary joint research is the "Presentation and establishment of a DNA double helix structure model" which won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962. In fact, there are 4 scientists who have made major contributions to this achievement, and their research covers the fields of biology, physics, physical chemistry, and crystallography. It is precisely because these four scientists have exerted their professional expertise that this important milestone discovery in the history of life sciences has come out and opened a new era of modern molecular biology.

Nowadays, major discoveries and the resolution of important problems in any field are beginning to depend on the intersecting, infiltrating, and merging of knowledge and technologies from multiple disciplines. "The marginal areas where different disciplines cross are often high-yield areas for new discoveries and new breakthroughs." Qiu Liping, associate professor at Hunan University, told Science News.

This is because interdisciplinarity is not a simple superposition of multiple disciplines, but a new discipline that relies on the inherent inherent logical relationship among various disciplines through mutual integration. Applying mature knowledge methods and technologies from one discipline to the forefront of another discipline can often lead to major innovations.

With the encouragement and encouragement of the Nobel Prize, scientists from different disciplines and nationalities have carried out extensive, close and in-depth cooperation, which is not only conducive to major scientific breakthroughs, fostering new growth points, but also helpful Yu gave birth to the birth of a new discipline like nanoscience, which ultimately promoted the rapid development of science and technology.

Foster the spirit of science

The reason why the Nobel Prize can become such a powerful and authoritative world-class award in the world has nothing to do with the spirit of Nobel that was originally formulated, transcended the country and race, and benefited all mankind. The birthplace of the Nobel Prize-Sweden has more than 20 years of study and work experience, Swedish Meral Dalun University and Royal Swedish Institute of Technology Professor Yan Jinyue told ,Science News.

Since its establishment, although the evaluation process and results of the Nobel Prize are not completely uncontroversial, the spirit of advocating innovation, irrespective of origin, respect for science, and optimism is worthy of all countries, scientific research institutions and scientists to learn and carry forward. .

The Nobel Prize as a vane of scientific development shows the important course of scientific development, covering all aspects of scientific content, scientific spirit and scientific values, not only inspiring a group of outstanding scientists to pioneer for human civilization and progress, but also leading the world The direction and trend of scientific and technological development have become the most attractive and bright pearl in the history of science. Bu Fengxian, Northwest Institute of Historical Environment and Economic and Social Development of Shaanxi Normal University, said of the scientific spirit of Nobel Prize.

Scientist's scientific spirit training and innovation ability training will directly affect the quality level of scientific research achievements. Throughout the ages, every achievement and progress in every aspect of scientific research has been inseparable from the hard work and dedication of a scientist, seeking up and down, and overcoming difficulties. Therefore, studying and carrying forward the rich scientific spirit of the Nobel Prize and inspiring scientists to withstand loneliness and climb to the peak will be of great significance to the progress and development of the entire scientific research career.

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