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The Duck Effect: Why do people who know nothing often talk eloquently?

The Duck Effect: Why do people who know nothing often talk eloquently?

Dunning-Kruger effect (Dunning-Kruger effect) Also known as the Duck effect, in a word: the less you know, the more you think you know more. This is a cognitive bias. The more people lack skills, abilities and knowledge, the easier it is to exaggerate their abilities and knowledge. As a result, this kind of person is more likely to be an "ultracrepidarian": a person who can express an opinion on everything that has been heard but does not know anything about the matter itself-but this The breed believes that no one knows better than me. (Annotation: The original sentence is ... but they think they know a lot more than the others.)

The problem is that the victims of the Duck effect not only stop expressing opinions and opinions, but also try to impose opinions on others as if they have mastered the absolute truth. Other people in contrast are naturally incompetent or ignorant. generation. Obviously, dealing with such people is not easy, because their thinking is often very hard.

Criminal wants to use lemon juice to make himself invisible

In Pittsburgh in the 1990s, something amazing happened. A 44-year-old man robbed two banks within a day, and has not covered his face or identity. Obviously, this criminal trip was destined to be short-lived, and the man was immediately arrested.

After being arrested, the man named McArthur Wheeler pleaded guilty that he had originally applied lemon juice to his face, which should make his face invisible in the camera. But I coated lemon juice! This was what he did when he was arrested.

Soon afterwards it became clear that the idea of   applying lemon juice came from jokes from two Wheeler friends, saying that they would use this technique to attack the bank and avoid being caught. Wheeler tested the technical proposal, smeared lemon juice on his face, and took a photo of his face. Probably because the shooting was wrong, but this "test" was decisive for Wheeler: he decided to complete his "genius" plan.

This incident spread to Cornell University and David Dunning, a professor of social psychology at the school, did not dare to believe it. He couldn't help wondering, My incompetence can really make me blind to my incompetence?

This curiosity drove him to start a cooperation with his colleague Justin Kruger. However, the conclusions they made through a series of experiments shocked them further.

The study of the Duck effect was born

In four experiments in the same series, psychologists analyzed people's abilities in the three fields of grammar, logical reasoning, and humor.

The experiment requires participants to assess their abilities in the above areas. After that, they accepted a series of tests, the purpose of these tests is to assess their actual ability.

As a result, the researchers found that the more severe the lack of ability, the less aware of it. Paradoxically, people with the strongest abilities or the best in a certain field usually underestimate their skills and knowledge. Thus, the Duck effect was born.

These psychologists also summarize the characteristics of the incapacitated in a certain field of knowledge:

– Unable to detect and recognize their incompetence

– Often the ability to recognize others

The good news about this effect is that it will dilute as people's ability levels increase and they understand their limitations.

The less we know, the more we know, but why?
This unrealistic concept has a problem. In order to do a good job, we must have at least the skills and abilities to accurately estimate our future performance.

For example, someone may think that they have a beautiful singing voice because they don't know any music at all, or know the techniques for controlling pitch and keeping up with the rhythm. He would describe himself as "the sound of a natural sound", but in fact he didn't have all five sounds.

The spelling is the same: if we do n’t understand the rules of spelling, we ca n’t know the mistakes, and we do n’t realize our mistakes, so we do n’t think we will make mistakes.

In fact, the Duck effect can be seen everywhere in life. A study by the University of Wellington showed that 80% of drivers think they are above average-of course, this is not statistically possible at all.

This cognitive deviation also exists in the field of psychology. The reason why some people say "the best psychologist is myself" is because they don't understand what kind of help professionals can provide to them, and they don't understand the complexity of many psychological skills.

In real life, we think we have known everything we must know. This makes us a closed person, expressing opinions with prejudice, and as absolute truth.

Think for yourself: how to minimize the Duck effect

We all make mistakes due to calculation errors, knowledge (insufficient), and foresight (deviation). The world is always full of epic classic mistakes, such as the landmark building of the Leaning Tower of Pisa-it was already crooked before the construction was completed. Just a few years ago, the French government spent 15 billion euros to buy 2,000 new trains, but then found that these trains were too long, and there were 1,200 stations within the border that could not be accommodated. Later, they had to invest additional funds to transform the stations. (Annotation: The incident occurred in 2014, and news reports said the train was "too wide" rather than too long.)

In daily life, we may make mistakes due to lack of experience or overestimation of our abilities. Errors are not negative, and we must not avoid them. Instead, we can turn errors into learning tools. However, we must never trip over the same stone in succession, which is really discouraging.

We must pay attention to this kind of cognitive distortion, lack of ability and lack of self-criticism will not only bring wrong conclusions, but also make us make wrong decisions, and ultimately hurt ourselves.

That is to say, in some cases, the responsibility for "failures and mistakes" throughout our lives does not lie with others, or with bad luck, but with our assessment of ourselves.

To minimize the impact of the Duck effect and avoid becoming the kind of person who can boast about anything but actually know nothing about it, the following simple items are sufficient:

– At least know that there are such cognitive deviations

– Leave room for questioning, different ways of thinking and doing things

– When expressing your opinions, always respect others. No matter how confident you are in your opinion, do n’t force it on others

We must bear in mind that no one can know all subjects of the subject omnipotently. We all have limitations and ignore some facts. Therefore, a better way of life is to maintain humility and maintain a learning attitude.

What should I do if I do not admit that I have insufficient ability or ignorance?

Some people's comments are very sharp, especially when they don't know the subject of the discussion, and they depreciate others' views, which is particularly uncomfortable. Our first reaction to this is usually annoyance and anger. This reaction is completely understandable, but it is really useless. Instead, we must learn to remain calm. Remember, it will only hurt you if you give it energy or think it is important. (Remember that it can only hurt you what you give it power, what you consider important.) Of course, some people are not experts on a certain issue, and they do n’t even know what they are talking about, so their opinions should not be important.

If you don't want the dialogue to go beyond the scope, you can simply say: I have heard this from you, Thank you. If you really want to make this person aware of the limitations of their own statements, then all you can do is to help him / her improve their skills on this issue.

Avoid using phrases like "You don't know what you are talking about" or "You don't understand", because it will only make the other person feel very important (feels attached), generate a defensive stance, and reject your proposal. In fact, you may wish to make a new point. You can say: "I listened to what you said, and now it is assumed that the facts are not exactly developing like that." The goal is to allow this person to have an open attitude to different views and ways of doing things.

It can also be said that we do not understand much in some fields, and even feel ignorant, but this is not a bad thing. It is a rare opportunity to continue learning and growing.

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